Abstract: Flare stars signal the transition of red dwarfs to brown dwarfs in stellar metamorphosis. This means brown dwarfs are not “failed stars”, just the next stage after red dwarf. Reasoning is provided.
In stellar metamorphosis, exoplanets are evolved/evolving stars. Since they are the same objects, they have the same evolutionary timeline. Since they have the same evolutionary timeline, their evolutionary paths can be inferred by their physical appearance. In this specific case, it can be inferred that since brown dwarfs are cooler and smaller than red dwarfs, then they were at one time actual red dwarfs, not failed stars. This means they are not only vastly older than what mainstream dogma accepts (sometimes as young as 23 million years old), but that their transition from their hotter star stages is even signaled by the stage known as “flare star”. This is the stage with which the main polar magnetic field of the star overcomes the fields of the surface activity. This in turn is caused by the iron/nickel core beginning formation and aligning the star’s magnetic field internally. The electromagnetic turbulence of this process is what causes the flares. Since the flares are extremely powerful, the star loses mass much more rapidly than previous stages of stellar evolution. If any scientist wants to figure out if the star is past flare stages or not, all they have to do is figure out if it has a strong polar magnetic field. If it does, then flare stages have past. If it has turbulent magnetic activity and is in the temperature range of red dwarfs, then it has not and the scientist will probably see flaring events if they pay attention to the star.
The transition of red dwarf to brown dwarf in stellar evolution is signaled by flare star stage. This means brown dwarfs are not failed stars, they are older stars than red dwarfs. Since red dwarfs are already many hundreds of millions of years old, then all brown dwarfs are also many hundreds of millions of years old. They are intermediate aged stars according to stellar metamorphosis, not failed ones.