Rocks and minerals in establishment astronomy form in vacuum. This is a fact. What they never tell people is how exactly do the rocks and minerals form to begin with, before they clump together?
The protoplanetary disk
requires that rocks/minerals form in vacuum. Not only that but they ignore the
chemical reactions required to form the compounds minerals/rocks are comprised
of. To them, elements just clump together because of gravity forming rocks.
Rocks and minerals are comprised of chemical compounds! Where was the activation energy provided to combine the elements together for mineral formation in the vacuum of outer space!? As well, how the hell do they explain crystal growth in vacuum absent a gravitational body to provide direction for deposition?
People need to understand this fact:
Vacuum does not possess pressure, that's why they call it vacuum.
So literally, we have chemistry being ignored (albeit haphazardly), to account for the fact that the majority of chemistry equations start with 1 atm of pressure regarding enthalpies of formation (forming chemical compounds such as minerals).
Where is the chemistry of vacuum to account for mineral growth to begin with?
It is ignored ladies and gentlemen.
Just so we are clear how the chain of events happens and how establishment ignores it I can break it down very easily:
1. First you combine elements to make molecules.
2. Then you take those molecules and layer them to form minerals.
3. Then you take those minerals and mix them up to form rocks.
4. Then you clump the small rocks together until they make really big objects.
5. Then the objects differentiate based on their ''weight".
That is how establishment does planet building, I'm not kidding. So, it should be brought to the attention of the reader:
1. How do elements combine to make molecules in the vacuum of outer space absent pressure and activation energy?
2. How do those compounds layer themselves absent any coherent direction (remember there is no gravitation while the pebbles are forming).
3. How did the minerals mix up to form rocks absent any mechanism in outer space to do with mixing?
4. How do you clump together the small rocks absent a gravitational field, and given it is a known fact that they will bounce off each other and not coalesce?
5. How do these larger rocks differentiate based on their weight absent a heat source and ignoring the fact that they have already become crystalline structure in the first steps?
It sounds like establishment astrophysics is a mix of wishful thinking, miracles and ignorance of simple chemical and geological understanding.
I can answer the questions, but establishment noobs won't like the answers.
1. A star combines elements to make molecules as the majority of its material is fully ionized. Recombining the ionized material will form molecules. The star provides the pressure and activation energy in the form of gravitational collapse, electrical arcing, and magnetic pinching.
2. The star provides the coherent direction, down, into its interior.
3. The star does the mixing via the rock cycle (bad news for geologists, they have been ignoring earlier stages of a star's evolution).
4. The star will clump together the rocks, there is no escape! Gravity holds everything in place, unless the rocks ionize fully again then get expelled via a CME or solar wind.
5. The differentiation isn't done via weight alone, the properties/ionization energies of the material determine it's placement during the process of differentiation (sorry, the iron catastrophe is hocus pocus).