In government secret keeping, you have:
1. need to know (to do your job/write science papers)
2. level of clearance (classified, secret, top secret/bachelors, masters, PhD)
3. compartmentalization (very small amount of interdisciplinary studies, the chemists stay with chemists, the astronomers with astronomers, the engineers with engineers).
I just thought I'd point that out. If science funding was more privatized we could probably get more done.
To the people who think there is no "secret keeping" in the sciences, read this and then get back to me.
The positions of the radio sources were kept secret from other scientists. What is ironic is that since they were kept secret from Mr. Arp, he was forced to study other things (which lead him to the discovery of radio sources near active galaxies), regardless if he had the PhD (top secret clearance), and was in the same discipline as the others, he did not have the need to know...