Modern science has confused math for physics.
Two good methods for determination if a theory is scientific and can be tested or is mathematical and cannot be tested is if it mentions thermodynamics. If it outright ignores thermodynamics then it is either pseudoscience such as Big Bang Creationism, black holes and spacetime warping, or if it fails to include proper thermodynamics and its consequences such as the nebular hypothesis (which gases become rocks absent a coherent background to stabilize the material) or stellar evolution, in which their models rely on stars not losing mass as they evolve, even though they radiate and are losing mass.
A. If the theory ignores thermodynamics it is probably mathematical theory (pseudoscience). (Big Bang Creationism, Black Holes, spacetime warping).
B. If the theory misapplies thermodynamics it is probably wrong. (Nebular hypothesis creating Earth sized objects, accepted stellar evolution models which ignore the mass-energy equivalence principle).