Thursday, May 28, 2015

Reaction Rates During Stellar Evolution, Stellar Metamorphosis

It is common knowledge that mainstream cosmology and astrophysics thinks stars are fusion reactors, thus their ideas and understanding of the stars is a dead end.

What needs to happen is we need to apply reaction rates to the chemicals by reverse engineering the Earth, and even the high atmospheres of exoplanets (evolving stars).

The nature of the reaction: Some reactions are naturally faster than others. The number of reacting species, their physical state (the particles that form solids move much more slowly than those of gases or those in solution), the complexity of the reaction and other factors can greatly influence the rate of a reaction.

(To include plasmatic matter during earlier stages of stellar evolution and stellar birthing which is subject to electromagnetic forcing, thus would majorly influence the nature of the reaction.)

Concentration: Reaction rate increases with concentration, as described by the rate law and explained by collision theory. As reactant concentration increases, the frequency of collision increases.

(Concentrations do also change as the star begins differentiation, so nailing which chemicals are denser than others as they synthesize in the interiors of the star is also important.)

Pressure: The rate of gaseous reactions increases with pressure, which is, in fact, equivalent to an increase in concentration of the gas. The reaction rate increases in the direction where there are fewer moles of gas and decreases in the reverse direction. For condensed-phase reactions, the pressure dependence is weak.

(Condensed phase reactions take place in higher altitudes early during stellar evolution, and move towards the interior as the material cools and begins pressurization, as well as early core development. This would impact the rate of reactions on a large scale, and has a lot to do with why some gas giants are puffier than others, meaning we can determine if they were recently orbiting other hotter younger stars, more on that later.)

Order: The order of the reaction controls how the reactant concentration (or pressure) affects reaction rate.

(Order of the reaction is a big deal, especially when the plasmatic matter is still in its recombining modes (becoming gaseous)), because they are electromagnetically forced and gravitation basically a non-existent force when measured against electromagnetism at small distances.)

Temperature: Usually conducting a reaction at a higher temperature delivers more energy into the system and increases the reaction rate by causing more collisions between particles, as explained by collision theory. However, the main reason that temperature increases the rate of reaction is that more of the colliding particles will have the necessary activation energy resulting in more successful collisions (when bonds are formed between reactants). The influence of temperature is described by the Arrhenius equation. As a rule of thumb, reaction rates for many reactions double for every 10 degrees Celsius increase in temperature, though the effect of temperature may be very much larger or smaller than this.

(Young stars hot on their surfaces and internalize their heat as they evolve, while simultaneously pressurizing their interiors and undergoing phase transitioning, this has calculus written all over it.)

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